Are you looking for a way to enjoy Literature and Rare Books’ digital holdings? Explore our updated virtual exhibit How We Might Live: The Vision of William Morris. This online exhibit offers insight into William Morris (1834-1896), who was an author, socialist, decorator, printer, calligrapher, and leader in the Arts and Crafts Movement. Morris was inspired by the Middle Ages to produce beautiful, high quality works. Morris’ creations include furnishings from Morris and Co. and books published by Kelmscott Press. Morris was also active in the English Socialist movement and founded the Socialist League in 1884.Continue reading
Hornbake Library’s Literature and Rare Books collection contains many excellent works by LGBTQ writers and artists. If you would like to learn more about works by LGBTQ people in Literature and Rare Books but aren’t sure where to start, we have the solution. Exploring Hornbake’s holdings from LGBTQ writers is easier than ever with our new subject guide, LGBTQ Writers and Artists in Special Collections!Continue reading
One of the intriguing aspects of working with the Library of American Broadcasting (LAB) collections is discovering, through routine processing, people who developed interesting careers in early network radio and television but are not well-known among broadcast historians. In particular, information on women in broadcasting can be especially scarce, making it challenging to discover the full scope of their contributions to the industry. The relative lack of archival documentation compared to their male counterparts certainly reflects their historic marginalization in the industry.
Sometimes, we have only a few items from which to assemble personal histories, such as those I find while working with our photo archive. Take, for example, this press photo of a woman seated in front of an early NBC “box camera” microphone. An included caption describes her: “Continually on the trail of celebrities to present on the National Farm and Home Hour, Helen Stevens Fisher generally succeeds in presenting at least one nationally famous personality each week. Her early experience as a newspaper reporter serves her in good stead when it comes to getting her guests to tell some of their most interesting experiences.”
A Google search turns up a little more information, such as mentioning her previous experience as a newspaper reporter. But nothing tells me if she was content to be the “The Little Lady of the House,” as the network called her, or if she was ambitious to expand her role on the program. Digital newspaper archives reveal that Fisher joined the Illinois Woman’s Press Association in 1927, later serving as president from 1945-1949 and that she was the author of five books on home entertainment. (She had the dubious honor of having one of her books unfavorably reviewed in the New York Times by famous radio curmudgeon Fred Allen.) That’s all I could find online in a brief search; perhaps an oral history with Fisher waits to be discovered in a different archive.
Another photo with little more than a cryptic caption describes one Claudine Macdonald, “charming mistress of ceremonies on NBC’s Woman’s Radio Review, [who] presides, via microphone, over hundreds of club meetings throughout the country. Her broadcasts… bring to America’s remotest hamlets distinguished speakers – both men and women – who would otherwise be available to only the largest and most wealthy organizations.”
I was able to find more information about Macdonald in Donna L. Halpern’s Invisible Stars: A Social History of Women in American Broadcasting (2014): “The Women’s Radio Review was almost like a magazine, featuring segments on music (sometimes written or performed by women artists), literature, art, travel, news… and no recipes. Macdonald was… opposed to the type of women’s show that talked to women as if they were stupid.” Newspaper archives turned up several articles, including a widely syndicated full-page biography. One of them offered details of her childhood, education, previous work experience, and how she came to create, direct, and host an afternoon “woman’s program” on NBC. However, as with Helen Stevens Fisher, I could find no information about when and under what circumstances she left broadcasting.
Fortunately, the LAB also contains more robust collections of women in broadcasting, providing much more complete pictures of their careers. For example, the Edythe Meserand (pictured below) papers include correspondence, clippings, memos, notes, and scripts. These tell us that she began her career in 1926, joining the Press Department of the recently formed NBC network in New York. Meserand was also a charter member and first national president of the American Women in Radio and Television (AWRT), the organizational records of which comprise one of our most popular collections. This article offers a more detailed description that Meserand and other early female figures in American broadcasting history, such as Inga Rundvold, Julie Stevens and Mona Kent, all of whom are well-represented in our archival collections.
Whether they’re comprised of a single photo or dozens of linear feet, materials that document women’s roles in all aspects of broadcasting are especially vital in not only preserving their legacies, but providing detailed accounts of how they navigated the challenges before them.
Post by Jim Baxter
Processing, Reference and Outreach Assistant with Special Collections in Mass Media and Culture
The Bakery, Confectionery, Tobacco Workers, and Grain Millers International Union (BCTGM) records are a major archival labor collection in the University of Maryland’s Special Collections & University Archives. Our archives staff spent some time the last few years reviewing this collection to make it more accessible for both staff and the public. In about 1982 the first records from the union were processed. Over the course of the next three decades, another 40 accessions of records were given to the archives, but they remained unprocessed. The result of our recent review is an additional 490 linear feet of inventoried material dating from 1886 to 2016 that was previously difficult to navigate, search, and serve in the Maryland Room. This material is now minimally processed and boxes are available to request and view in the Maryland Room.Continue reading
“A small group of people determined to oppose legislation, if provided with money, as were the brewers and distillers, may prevent action being taken, even though the masses of the people demand it.”
In a modern political landscape that empowers lobbyists and special interest groups–particularly those with enough money to spare–you wouldn’t be unreasonable to believe that these words were spoken in the last few years. In fact, they were spoken one hundred years ago.
Carrie Chapman Catt, who composed these words, embodied socially progressive ideas in more ways than one. Born in 1859 in rural Wisconsin, Catt dedicated four decades of her life organizing campaigns and advocating political leaders across the country for the passage of laws to enable women’s suffrage. During a time when even the more influential women rarely occupied positions of high social and political power, Catt served two terms as the president of the National American Woman Suffrage Association between 1900 and 1920 and founded the League of Women Voters in 1920.
Like her close friend and NAWSA presidential predecessor Susan B. Anthony, Catt worked tirelessly for several decades to champion the women’s suffrage movement in the pursuit of a national right to vote. Between the 1890s and 1910s, Catt helped develop and implement campaigns across the country to pressure state and federal leaders to support suffrage legislation. At the grassroots level, she also helped to mobilize thousands of volunteers and supporters for the NAWSA and made hundreds of speeches to promote her goals and visions.
After the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920 fulfilled the most fundamental goal of the suffrage movement, Catt helped to create the League of Women Voters. Not fully content with a federal amendment giving women across the country the right to vote, Catt expanded her vision for greater gender equality by encouraging women to become more active political leaders. In a pamphlet published by the LWV entitled “Whose Government Is This?,” Catt advocated for women to enroll in classes in citizenship and ethics so that they could learn about how their governments work and operate. In order to attain a greater impact on politics, Catt concluded the pamphlet by writing, “women must be on the inside of parties, and before that can be brought about they must understand better than they do the strength of weakness of each political process.”
When the League of Women Voters published these words, only one woman had been elected to Congress. By the end of the 1920s, 23 women would hold positions in the federal legislature. This pamphlet not only attests to Catt’s vast contributions to the women’s suffrage movement and its eventual realization in 1920, but also illustrates how the fight for equal rights and representation continued to grow beyond the passage of the 19th amendment.
**To learn more about women’s suffrage, check out the “Get Out The Vote: Suffrage & Disenfranchisement in America” exhibit from the Special Collections and University Archives.
David Biel, Candidate for Master of Library & Information Science, University of Maryland.
In 1872 William Still published The Underground Railroad, a book describing the accounts of African Americans who had escaped slavery through the Underground Railroad. Still, an influential leader in the abolitionist movement, provided first hand assistance to hundreds of people escaping slavery. The Underground Railroad is notable because it is the only first person history of the Underground Railroad written and published by an African American.Continue reading
We are thrilled to announce the launch of a new virtual exhibition, Get Out the Vote: Suffrage and Disenfranchisement in America.
Inspired by our collections of grassroots organizations, we used material from our collection to tell the story of voting rights in America, from the founding of this nation to our current electoral climate.
The ideal of universal suffrage, or “one person, one vote,” has compelled many to advocate for greater equity and inclusion in the electoral process. Over the years, voting rights have expanded and contracted for many marginalized communities. Election laws continue to evolve in America as citizens demand equitable representation in government and access to the ballot.
Despite the importance of suffrage in America, voting rights have not always been ensured for everyone. Barriers to voting have led many to advocate for a more representative electorate and to encourage greater participation in local, state, and national elections. Their efforts are crucial to ensure all ALL citizens have the opportunity to cast their ballot.
“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”U.S. Constitution. Amendment XV, Section 1. 1870
Last year marked the 150th Anniversary of the 15th Amendment. As one of the last amendments passed during the Reconstruction Era, some lawmakers intended for the 15th Amendment to guarantee voting rights for U.S. citizens regardless of their racial or ethnic identity or a “previous condition of servitude.” In the years immediately following the ratification of the 15th amendment, voter registration and political participation among black men increased dramatically. This trend lasted only a few years before politicians were able to enact laws that “legally” disenfranchised black men. Poll taxes, literacy tests and grandfather clauses limited the ability of many black men and poor people to continue to participate in elections.
The artifacts gathered here reflect sentiments about the 15th Amendment throughout time.
Annual Report of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society (1870)
In this final annual report, members of the Philadelphia Female Anti-Slavery Society reflect on the organization’s 36 years of work towards ending the system of slavery. In their report, they declare their success in their mission, discuss the decision to disband and acknowledge that the fight for sustained equal rights under the law was not over. On voting, they observed:
“Bravely, in the face of imminent peril have they addressed themselves to the performance of their duties. The record of the first election in Virginia where colored men used the ballot, tells the story of many such elections throughout the South. One who witnessed it, reports that on the evening previous to the election, “these loyal-hearted new citizens, devoted themselves in their place of worship, to the high duty before them, with prayer, and the grand old psalm, ‘Before Jehovah’s awful throne;’ then separated to meet at sunrise, and appear in body at the polls.” One hundred men, without a foot of land of their own, and with notices in their pockets, by the old slave-masters, threatening to turn them shelterless from the soils ; there they stook, in the face of the oppressor, and voted for Free Schools, Free Speech and Equal Taxation.” (6)Continue reading
In April of 1960, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) emerged as an organization for young Black activists, particularly those who were participating in student-led sit-ins at segregated lunch counters across the Southeast.
Its founder Ella Baker, formerly employed with the NAACP and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), believed that SCLC did not allow enough space for Black women and was out of touch with younger, more radical Black activists. Baker intended the Committee as a way to implement direct-action challenges to segregation and voter suppression in the U.S., and it eventually grew to be one of the most radical branches of the civil rights movement (its members were known within the civil rights movement as the “shock troops of the revolution”). Her work for the NAACP in the 1940s provided SNCC with a network of activists, including Bob Moses and Amzie Moore. With help from Moses and Moore, SNCC organized its first Voter Registration Project in the summer of 1960.Continue reading