We are happy to announce the debut of the Colony in Crisis website, where you will find a collection of digitized and translated French pamphlets dealing with the Saint-Domingue grain shortage of 1789. To facilitate access to each pamphlet, we have brought together the French original, a brief historical introduction, and a translation. While the subject matter will be of interest to those interested in a variety of fields such as Atlantic History, the Ancien Régime, and the Haitian Revolution, the primary goal of A Colony in Crisis is to get these fascinating and underutilized pamphlets into more hands and shed light on an interesting chapter in the history of Saint-Domingue. We expect it will be especially useful for undergraduate courses needing primary source materials that have been translated into English, but we welcome feedback as to the many other potential uses. Thank you to the Board of Advisors and the many colleagues who contributed; without their assistance the site would not be going live today!
A new (very old!) collection of early printing has now been processed and digitized, and is available in the Digital Collections or by request in person in the Maryland Room. The Early Printing Collection is a set of thirty-six leaves and pages that were printed in Europe in the late 15th century. It includes printed pages from many well-known works, including the The Nuremberg Chronicle, Historia Scholastica and The Cologne Chronicle.
Typographical printing done before 1501 in Europe is often called Incunabula, a funny pseudo-Latin phrase that refers to the birth of printing in the 15th century. The 15th century saw important advances in the movable type printing press thanks to Johannes Gutenberg’s printing press invented around 1450. The Gutenberg Bible is the first (and probably most famous) book printed using movable type, and while you won’t find any of its pages in the Early Printing Collection, the collection does feature many other pages from Bibles and other religious and historical chronicles printed around the same time period. Within the collection the printing itself is generally clear and easy to read — that is, if you understand Latin or Middle German!
Early Printing History
Even though the leaves are over 500 years old, the collection is in relatively good condition and provides excellent examples of early printing history, from paper-making to moveable type setting to woodblock printing. Many of the leaves were printer’s proof sheets or scraps, but since paper was still a relatively valuable commodity at the time, these scrap pages were recycled and used in book-binding. They’ve since been removed from bindings, but many still bear marks from the old binding paste. Looking more closely at the leaves in the collection, you can find examples of mould-made papers with visible chain lines and laid lines that indicate how the paper was made by hand using a wire mesh screen. Watermarks, the designs and images found in laid paper, can also be seen on some of the leaves, especially those from the Nuremberg Chronicle. Most of the printing is done in a Gothic typeface, also called Blackletter, though there are a few examples of roman type as well. There are leaves from several important printers from the time period, including Günther Zainer from Augsburg, Konrad Dinckmut from Ulm, and Johann Koelhoff The Younger of Cologne. As for the context, most of the leaves are from religious texts like bibles, psalters, and books of hours, while a few of the leaves come from historical and legal texts.
Explore the Collection in the Classroom
The Early Printing Collection has many potential applications for undergraduate and graduate courses on campus. Courses in departments like English, History, Art History, Art Studio, Library Science, and others can utilize the collection to study firsthand the history of printing, typography design, and rare books. Plus, with thirty-six separate folios of leave, there are enough examples for students to work individually or in small groups to closely examine the details of the page and learn about early printing firsthand.
As you now know I began my tenure as the interim Curator for Literature and Rare Books by trying to get more familiar with cataloged items in Rare Books and Special Collections by creating a spreadsheet that would give me an overview of the collection as a whole. Technical Services provided me with a MARC file containing the complete MARC records for every item in these collections and pointed me to MARCedit to be able to create a customized report about the collections. Previously I explained how I used MARCedit in Revealing La Revolution: The Environmental Scan & MARCedit, Part 1. Now I’m going to share how I imported and set up my data in Microsoft Excel so that it revealed the contents of Rare Books and Special Collections to me.
I began by opening a new workbook in Microsoft Excel and went to the “Data” Menu Ribbon.
In the furthest left column I choose to import my data “from text” and directed the request box to the correct file.
The Import Wizard then allowed me to choose how to import the file. I chose “delimited” because that was the type of file I created and left “Start import at row” to its preset of “1”. In order to keep the diacritics and special characters from foreign languages I had to change the “File origin:” to match my file type “Unicode (UTF-8)”.
For Step two I chose “tab” to match my previous file.
And in Step 3 I choose “Text” because I didn’t want Excel thinking it was smarter than me and assuming that what might be a combination of numbers and letters is something other than it is and changing it. You know Excel likes to do this!
Finally I told excel that I wanted it to use the current worksheet to display the data. And after the import was complete I saved my new excel file!
Finally, because I wanted to sort my data I choose to “Format as Table” from the “Home” Menu Ribbon.
And now I have a very useful excel table with all currently cataloged Rare Book and Special Collections items.
This file is so much more useful than browsing the stacks for projects like the environmental scan for Revealing La Revolution. It is also a great help to me as I update the webpages about our collections and reach out to instructors with resources for their classroom. Hopefully the information on how I created this report is useful to you, too.
See Revealing La Revolution: The Environmental Scan & MARCedit, Part 1 to learn more about using MARCedit to read how I used MARCeditor to define the fields for my Excel spreadsheet.
As the interim Curator of Literature and Rare Books I am writing the Environmental Scan for the French Pamphlet Project. Two tools I have found very useful to help with this are MARCedit and Microsoft Excel (I sort of love spreadsheets). I became familiar with MARCedit over the summer as I attempted to gain intellectual control over my expanded collection responsibilities and learned a new (to me) feature of Microsoft Excel which has proved very useful for putting together this report. So I wanted to tell you a little about what I’ve learned.
After I was appointed interim Curator for Literature and Rare Books in May, I requested a report from Technical Services of all cataloged items in Rare Books and Special Collections. I already had a comfortable grasp of the literary manuscript collections but had not had an opportunity to really get to know the Rare Books and Special Collections volumes. In an effort to become better acquainted with these collections, I asked Technical Services to include several descriptive MARC fields (language and subject entries) for each item in Rare Books and Special Collections.
I was hoping that the final report would provide me a broad overview of the collection as well as the ability to examine the collection at a more granular level without having to go and browse the stacks. While I do love browsing the Rare Books stacks this just seemed a very inefficient way to get to know the collections. Additionally, Rare Books are fragile (sorry to state the obvious) and I don’t want to be pulling them of the shelves, flipping through them, and the re-shelving them to gather information about them that should be discernible from their catalog records.
Technical Services ran a standard report version of my request and offered me a MARC file with all Rare Book and Special Collections items complete MARC records if I wanted to create my own report using MARCedit. I accepted the challenge and a short guide to MARCedit.
After downloading and installing MARCedit, the first step to using MARCedit requires running the entire MARCfile through MARCbreaker to create a UTF-8 MARC file. By converting the file to a UTF-8 file the succeeding programs that this information is run through will recognize the special characters and diacritics. MARCbreaker will clean up and search for errors in MARC records while providing preliminary data about the entire file. This data let me know how many times each MARC field was used which helped me in figuring out what MARC fields I wanted MARCedit to provide in my report.
I then ran my new MARC UTF-8 file through MARCedit and checked the result of my report in Microsoft Excel. My report was a mess! Many of the records were missing information in the MARCfields I had requested and most of the records in foreign languages using special characters and diacritics came through garbled. The problems were not MARCedit or Excel’s they were mine. I realized that I was going to need to dig a little deeper into MARC fields and get crafty about how I imported my data into Excel.
I had a basic understanding of the MARC fields from one of my introductory iSchool courses but found it necessary to rely heavily on the Library of Congress’s MARC21 Bibliographic Data website to make sure that I was getting the MARC fields I truly wanted.* I had to run the report several times before I was able to figure out all of the MARC fields I wanted and how to request them from MARCedit.
Entering the fields I wanted into MARCedit was the hardest part. I could only select a single MARC field or field and subfield at a time when I knew I wanted about 20 fields in my report. So it was time consuming to select each one individually and see whether or not UMD Libraries was using that field the way I expected them to or not. The fields I finally ended up with in my report are:
008$35 – Language Code (letter 1)
008$36 – Language Code (letter 2)
008$37 – Language Code (letter 3)
* Did you know that for MARC’s three-letter-language-code each letter is entered individually into three separate subfields? Also, I had to enter each subfield individually so that each letter gets its own column in the spreadsheet!!! Why catalogers? Why?
035 – OCLC #
050 – LOC Call Number
090 – Local Call Number
100 – Main Entry (Personal Name)
110 – Main Entry (Corporate Name)
240 – Uniform Title
245 – Title Statement
246 – Title Variation
260 – Publication
300 – Physical Description
362 – Dates of Publication
500 – General Note
510 – Citation & References
600 – Subject Entry – Personal Name
610 – Subject Entry – Corporate Name
611 – Subject Entry – Meeting Name
630 – Subject Entry – Uniform Title
648 – Subject Entry – Chronological Term
650 – Subject Entry – Topical Term
651 – Subject Entry – Geographic Name
653 – Index Term – Uncontrolled
655 – Index Term – Genre/Form
700 – Added Entry – Personal Name
740 – Added Entry – Uncontrolled Related Title
752 – Added Entry – Hierarchal Place Name
800 – Series Added Entry – Personal Name
830 – Series Added Entry – Uniform Title
852 – Location (Local)
856 – Electronic Location & Access
Having finally established all the MARC fields I needed. I returned to MARCedit to begin the process of exporting my final file. Under the “Tools” Menu I choose “Export Tab Delimited File” and set up a path to my new file, including the file name and .txt file type.
Next I entered each of the individual MARC fields I wanted for my report.
Once they were all entered I choose to export the file. I opened the text file just to check and make sure that it looked correct.
However I did not really want to keep my data as a .txt file. I wanted to be able to analyze the data and manipulate it in a table format. So I needed to import my .txt file into Microsoft Excel.
To be continued in Part 2… Revealing La Revolution: The Environmental Scan & Microsoft Excel, Part 2
*While I was working on this the government (including all Library of Congress webpages) was shut down. I had to use the Internet Archive’s Way Back Machine to retrieve the information I needed.
Newly opened portions of the collection
RG4: Executive Council
RG4-010 Early Federation Records, 1881-1888
RG18: International Affairs Department
RG18‑006 CIO International Affairs Department. Director’s Files, Michael H.S. Ross, 1934‑1963
RG20: Information Department
RG20-003 Information Department. CIO, AFL-CIO Press Releases, 1937-1995
RG20-004 Information Department. AFL-CIO News Cartoons, 1955-1984
RG28: Organizing Department
RG28-001 Organization and Field Services Department. AFL Federal Local Unions (FLUs); AFL-CIO Directly Affiliated Local Unions (DALUs), Charter Records, 1924-1981
RG28‑002 Organizing Department. Records, 1955‑1975
Labor History Publications:
AFL List of Affiliated Organizations: 1903-1931, 1940-1955
AFL-CIO List of Affiliated Organizations: 1956-1999, 2002-2003, 2005
Reports AFL 1881-1955
Proceedings of constitutional convention CIO 1938-1955
AFL CIO Proceedings 1955-2009
American Federationist 1894-1982
CIO Union News Service (1936-1937)
CIO News 1937-1955
AFL Weekly Newsletter – Vol. 2-12
AFL News Reporter 1951-1953
AFL News 1954-1955
AFL-CIO News 1955-1996
LLPE League Reporter 1949-1951
America at Work 1996-2002
Union Advocate, Vol. 1 (1887)
The George Meany Memorial AFL-CIO Archive is the largest single donation to the University Libraries and complements other labor-related collections in our libraries. To find out more about related labor collections in Special Collections, please view Collections By Subject: Labor In America.
The AFL-CIO Archive consists of approximately 40 million documents and other material that will help researchers better understand pivotal social movements in this country, including those to gain rights for women, children and minorities.
The Current list of re-opened record groups from the George Meany Memorial AFL-CIO Archive:
RG1: Office of the President
- RG1-010 Office of the President. Rosa Lee Guard Papers, 1904-1927
- RG1-011 Office of the President. Samuel Gompers’ Copy Books, 1907 1924
- RG1-012 Office of the President. Correspondence with Politicians, 1908‑1944
- RG1-013 Office of the President. Samuel Gompers and Woodrow Wilson
- RG1-015 Office of the President. William Green Papers, 1888, 1909 1952
- RG1-019 Office of the President. President’s Files, William Green, 1869-1955
- RG1-023 Office of the President. President’s Files, William Green, 1940‑1952
- RG1-026 Office of the President. George Meany Papers, 1935-1960
- RG1-027 Office of the President. President’s Files, George Meany, 1947-1960
- RG1-028 Office of the President. Merger Files, State and Local Central Bodies, 1955‑1962
- RG1-038 Office of the President. George Meany Files, 1940-1980
- RG1-039 Office of the President. AFL-CIO Joint Minimum Wage Committee, 1954-1960
- RG1-040 Office of the President. AFL Cornerstone Papers, 1881-1916
- RG1-041 Office of the President. Jurisdiction Books, 1890-1978
RG2: Secretary-Treasurer’s Office
- RG2-001 Secretary Treasurer’s Office. Gabriel Edmonston Papers, 1881 1912
- RG2-002 Secretary Treasurer’s Office. Frank Morrison’s Letterbooks, 1904 1925
- RG2-003 Secretary‑Treasurer’s Office. Frank Morrison, 1911‑1914
- RG2-006 Office of the Secretary‑Treasurer. Secretary‑ Treasurer’s Files, George Meany, 1940‑1953
- RG2-007 Office of the Secretary‑Treasurer. Secretary‑ Treasurer’s Files: William F. Schnitzler, 1952‑1980
- RG2-009 Secretary‑Treasurer’s Office. AFL Account Books, 1887‑1925
- RG2-010 Secretary‑Treasurer’s Office. AFL, AFL‑CIO Charter Books, 1891‑1966
- RG4-004 Executive Council. Correspondence, Minutes, Vote Books, 1891 1954
- RG4-005 Executive Council. Samuel Gompers Memorial Committee, 1924‑1936
- RG4-006 Executive Council. AFL CIO Executive Council Minutes, 1955 1969
- RG4-008 American Federation of Labor. Executive Council Minutes, 1893-1955
- RG4-009 Congress of Industrial Organization. Executive Board. Proceedings, 1942-1955
RG5: Office of the General Council
- RG5-001 Office of the General Council. Lawyers Coordinating Committee Oral History Project
RG9: Civil Rights Department
- RG9-001 Civil Rights Department. AFL Records, 1943 1955; CIO Committee to Abolish Discrimination, 1948 1950; AFL CIO Director’s Files, 1956 1967
- RG9-002 Civil Rights Department. Discrimination Case Files, 1947 1984
RG13: Research Department
- RG13-001 Research Department. Boris Shishkin Papers, 1918, 1927-1971
- RG13‑002 Research Department. Staff Files, Frank Fernbach, 1942 1968
- RG13‑003 Research Department. Staff Files, Nat Goldfinger, 1947‑1966
- RG13‑004 CIO Research Department. Staff Files, Everett Kassalow, 1947-1951
- RG13 005 Research Department. Director’s Files, Stanley H. Ruttenberg, 1946-1964
- RG13‑006 Economic Research Department. Office of Wage and Industrial Relations Records. Anne Draper Files, 1963‑1994
- RG13-007 Research Department. Convention Files, 1953
RG18: International Affairs Department
- RG18‑001 International Affairs Department. Country Files, 1945‑1971
- RG18‑002 CIO International Affairs Department. Director’s Files, Michael Ross, 1945‑1955
- RG18‑003 International Affairs Department. Jay Lovestone Files, 1939 1974
- RG18‑004 Affairs Department. Irving Brown Files, 1943‑1989
- RG18‑005 Affairs Department. Staff Files: George Delaney’s Files, 1921-1957
- RG18‑007 International Affairs Department. International Labor Organizations Activities, 1946-1985
- RG18‑008 International Affairs Department. AFL Advisors to the United Nations Economic and Social Council, 1944-1952
- RG18‑009 International Affairs Department. Staff Files: Serafino Romualdi’s Files, 1945-1961
- RG18‑010 International Affairs Department. Country Files, 1969-1981.
RG20: Information Department
- RG20-001 Information Department. Major News Publications of the CIO, AFL, and AFL-CIO, 1894-1996
- RG20-002 Information Department. CIO Union News Service, 1936-1950
RG95: Private Donations
- RG95-001 Morris S. Novik Papers, 1940 1989
- RG95-002 Vanni Buscemi Montana Collection, 1925 1991
- RG95-003 Virginia Tehas Oral Interview
- RG95-004 Trades Union Congress Papers, 1942-1943
- RG95-005 United Labor Policy Committee, 1950-1951
- RG95-006 William Baillie Baird Papers, 1886-1927
- RG95-007 Private Donations. Lane Kirkland Papers, 1863-1998
- RG95-008 Larry Rogin Papers, 1926-1988
RG96: Still Images
- RG96-001 Photographic Prints
- RG96-003 Photographic Slides
- RG96-004 Morris B. Schnapper Collection
Revised February 27, 2014
By Technical Lead John Schalow, Special Collections Cataloger/Coordinator
The University of Maryland Libraries’ French Pamphlet Collection is currently accessible through an inventory. But if you are looking for a specific title among the 5000 pamphlets in series one, you won’t find it quickly as series one is organized in boxes by broad subject. We don’t really know what titles are in each box and who has the time to look through all these boxes to find a title? Series two is an author/title list and while you can search the nearly 2000 titles in the PDF by keyword using the find function, this is time consuming. Therefore, we are currently identifying and analyzing the pamphlets in subject areas of interest to our faculty. The steps include compiling the data in a spreadsheet, selecting titles for digitization, and then creating machine readable catalog records for WorldCat.org. The cataloged pamphlets are under the call number DC141.F74 and those which are digitized are now in the catalog. The easiest way to browse them is to go to: http://umaryland.worldcat.org/ select Libraries to search “University of Maryland, College Park” and type in the search box ho:pamphlets france aat This search identifies all pamphlets with the genre heading “pamphlets France” and results in over 400 retrievals which you can limit by eBook format in the left-hand sidebar resulting in a view of digitized pamphlets. I have created a saved search in WorldCat.org which retrieves only the French pamphlets. WorldCat.org has powerful (but cryptic) command searches which are documented here. For example, you can do a Library of Congress subject search for Haiti combined with the above search to see the French pamphlets about Haiti. Hl:Haiti and ho:pamphlets france aat You can also access all of the digitized French pamphlets via our local “classic” catalog using an advanced search, command search: WLC=DC141.F74 and WTO=eo . Or this link: http://catalog.umd.edu/F/FTJ5TVJVLJKTRTB2QND7UBUHBQ4MTA4M2I81EQB2ANV8648RQ8-00851?func=find-c&ccl_term=wlc%3DDC141.F74+and+wty%3Deo&adjacent=N&x=28&y=6
Some of the pamphlet titles describe the contents pretty well, like Lettre du comte de Mirabeau à M. Le Couteulx de la Noraye, sur la Banque de Saint-Charles & sur la Caisse-d’escompte. But others do not! What is Les Abeilles de la Seine about? Bees of the Seine?? The cataloger has determined that it is a political satire and assigned this subject heading along with one for French revolution pamphlets. WorldCat.org enables you to click on subject links to find other works of or about French political satire. Catalogers also perform research to identify anonymous authors. The title page and contents of another pamphlet, Avis a la livrée, do not give the author, but the cataloger is able to attribute authorship to Louis Marie Prudhomme, which is reflected in the catalog record.
This cataloging effort facilitates efficient access to the pamphlets and in this way supports several of Ranganathan’s five laws of library science, especially “every book its reader” and “save the time of the reader”. Take advantage of the improved access to these resources today and happy reading!