The Illustrated Wartime Correspondence of Hendrik Willem van Loon

One of my favorite duties as a graduate assistant is working the reference desk in the Maryland Room. Having only been a part of Special Collections and University Archives for less than a year, there are still a number of collections I haven’t seen, and helping others with their research is one way that I get to learn more about our holdings. Recently, a researcher introduced me to the illustrated letters of Hendrik Willem van Loon in the Helen Sioussat papers. I was delighted by the brightly colored, whimsical illustrations van Loon drew on the envelopes he sent Sioussat, and seeing them inspired me to learn more about the two friends, both of whom were compelling historical figures I knew little about.

Illustration of a whale on an envelope by Hendrik Willem van Loon, sent via airmail to Helen Sioussat in Nassau, Bahamas

Envelope from a letter from Hendrik Willem van Loon to Helen Sioussat, February 24, 1941

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The Armed Services Editions: Books for Soldiers in World War II

Between 1943 and 1947, the Council on Books in Wartime shipped nearly 123 million books to American soldiers. Not just any books, the specially designed Armed Services Editions were lightweight paperbacks designed to easily fit in a soldier’s pocket. The 1,227 unique titles in the series were selected to appeal to a wide variety of interests, including literary classics, contemporary bestsellers, and various works of nonfiction.

At a time when books were banned or burned in Nazi Germany, sending books to soldiers overseas was seen as patriotic act. The slogan of the Council on Books in Wartime, “Books are weapons in the war of ideas,” reflected their belief that books were important for spreading the ideals of freedom and democracy. The books selected need not have lofty themes to be a part of the program, however, they simply had to be something that soldiers wanted to read. Books, the military discovered, were excellent morale boosters. A book could entertain a soldier anxiously waiting during long periods of inactivity, or it might be a soothing distraction for a soldier who had recently endured the agonies of battle.


“Books are weapons in the war of ideas,”
Records of the Office of Government Reports, 1932 – 1947, World War II Posters, 1942 – 1945, National Archives at College Park. Reference URL:

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Analyzing primary sources: Literature of World War I & World War II

This is one of a series of posts about how to analyze different types of primary sources.

Last week we took a look at a Confederate soldier’s sketchbook of prison life. This week we’re going to analyze some literature from World War I and World War II.


World War I and World War II were major military conflicts that involved many of the world’s most powerful and populous countries. Each war changed millions of lives and the histories of many countries. Countless individuals were inspired to create literature, poetry, plays, films, music, and artwork interpreting the wars. The books in this post all involve one of the world wars, each in a different way and from a different perspective.


Below are five different books related to World War I and World War II. Take a look at each book and look up their summaries to find out more information. Think about some of these questions as you compare them:

  • Who wrote these books? Were they involved in World War I or World War II?
  • When and where were these books written? (Note that this version of All Quiet on the Western Front is both a translation and an edition published decades after it was first written – how might that change your analysis?)
  • Who were these books written for? How might that affect the interpretation and representation of the wars?
  • These particular books are all fictional accounts – how might that affect your analysis? How much of the plots are based on facts?
  • How do the illustrations represent the wars? (Hint: Remember to consider the audience, plot, and publication date!)
  • What is the POV for each book? What is implied in the plots?
  • How do these books compare to each other and other war literature? How do they compare to what we actually know about World War I and World War II?

All Quiet on the Western Front and A Farewell to Arms

All Quiet on the Western Front and A Farewell to Arms [click for a larger image]

Further Research

These books are all part of our Literature & Rare Books collection in Special Collections. You can find these books and many more through the UMD Libraries’ catalog (try searching specifically in “Maryland Room Collections, Hornbake Library” to find rare books).

If you are interested in finding more literature created during and after these wars, check out the following books:

Learn more about girls’ series books in the digital exhibit “Girls’ Series Books Rediscovered: Nancy Drew & Friends,” and browse The Rose and Joseph Pagnani Collection of girls’ series books (from 1917 to the present).

As always, you can download our Primary Source Analysis handout or take at look at our “Research Using Primary Sources” tutorial. Need help finding primary and secondary sources to analyze? We’re always happy to help – just ask us! You can also check out our website (we recommend starting your research here).